A detailed overview on the prevention of dysmenorrhea
Prevalence and risk factors for primary dysmenorrhea The prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is highly underestimated, yet difficult to determine, because few affected women seek medical treatment, despite the substantial distress experienced, as many consider the pain to be a normal part of the menstrual cycle rather than a disorder Wong, The severity of dysmenorrhoea is significantly associated with duration of menstrual flow, younger average menarche, smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption.
Nitroglycerin formulations are currently used to relax the uterus for various pregnancy problems, so it may have implications for dysmenorrhoea.
Nursing management of dysmenorrhea
This enhanced pain sensitivity may increase susceptibility to other chronic pain conditions in later life; dysmenorrhea is a risk factor for fibromyalgia. WHO systematic review of prevalence of chronic pelvic pain: a neglected reproductive health morbidity. Women using both the heat patch and ibuprofen experience the most pain relief. Prevalence and impact of dysmenorrhea on Hispanic female adolescents. Since then, several studies have investigated pain sensitivity in dysmenorrhea, with mixed findings Table I partly due to differences in methodology. Patients who are at risk of sexually transmitted infection should have the appropriate swabs taken. Systematic reviews and RCTs of herbal and dietary supplements have shown that thiamine, pyridoxine, magnesium, and fish oil may be effective in relieving pain, although some of these may be associated with adverse effects see box.
EAU guidelines on chronic pelvic pain. Adnexal torsion—a multimodality imaging review. With such a selection bias, adenomyosis was commonly thought to be a condition confined to adulthood, with limited clinical cases in adolescents Ryan et al.
Oral contraceptives Good quality clinical trials of oral contraceptives for dysmenorrhoea are lacking. Women who are already at higher risk of these conditions are generally advised to avoid oral contraceptives.
Also, there are reports of higher nocturnal body temperatures and increased morning estrogen concentrations in women with primary dysmenorrhea compared with asymptomatic women, outside of the menstruation phase Baker et al. Further, the severity of menstrual pain and associated symptoms of dysmenorrhea are directly proportional to the amount of PGs released Chan et al.
Reprints are not available from the authors. Herbal products or medicines, and dietary supplements Herbal and dietary therapies are popular as they can be self administered and are available from health shops, chemists, and supermarkets.
While women with secondary dysmenorrhea share some of the same characteristics and pathways to pain as women with primary dysmenorrhea, for example increased uterine PG Koike et al.
In this study, dysmenorrheic women had lower pain thresholds to a pressure stimulus applied to the thumb, compared with non-dysmenorrheic women, in all menstrual cycle phases Haman, Harel Z. Common causes of secondary dysmenorrhoea include endometriosis, fibroids myomas , adenomyosis, endometrial polyps, pelvic inflammatory disease, and the use of an intrauterine contraceptive device. Prevalence and impact of dysmenorrhea on Hispanic female adolescents. Unknown genetic or environmental factors and underlying differences in the pain processing of the central nervous system CNS may also play a role in predisposing these women to greater pain sensitivity and consequently recurrent menstrual pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy guidelines. Primary dysmenorrhoea is menstrual pain without organic disease, and secondary dysmenorrhoea is menstrual pain associated with an identifiable disease. It also highlights pain sensitivity in women with dysmenorrhea and makes the case for it being classified as a central sensitization syndrome.
Magnets An RCT of a static magnet of 0. A focused history and physical examination are usually sufficient to diagnosis primary dysmenorrhoea.
based on 58 review