An overview of the illiad

Odyssey summary

Achilleus refuses this deal and attacks. She gets Zeus, the king of the gods, to agree to Achilleus's request. The tide again turns in favor of the Trojans. The goddess Athena, however, who favours the Greeks, soon provokes a Trojan truce-breaking and battle begins anew. Frequent similes tell of the peacetime efforts back home in Greece, and serve as contrasts to the war, reminding us of the human values that are destroyed by fighting, as well as what is worth fighting for. Achilles withdraws from fighting in a rage, and remains withdrawn for the bulk of the poem, during which time the Trojans, led by Hector--Trojan King Priam's son--almost burn the beached Greek ships and drive the invaders into the sea. When Agamemnon refuses and threatens to ransom the girl to her father, the offended Apollo plagues them with a pestilence. The assembly selects three ambassadors Odysseus, Phoinix, and Aias and sends them to Achilleus. Apollo convinces Aineias that he can take on Achilleus. Next Zeus directs Apollo to discourage the Achaians and to rejuvenate the wounded Hektor, which Apollo quickly does. The Trojans withdraw and assemble; Poulydamas suggests that they retreat within the walls and defend the city rather than face Achilleus on the plain. It is destined that he shall be the survivor, that the generation of Dardanos shall not die Hektor strips the armor from Patroklos' corpse, but Aias and Menelaos together are able to take a stand over the body. Herodotus , having consulted the Oracle at Dodona , placed Homer and Hesiod at approximately years before his own time, which would place them at c.

Patroklos arrives at Nestor's shelter and sees Machaon; he tries to return to Achilleus right away, but Nestor delivers a speech which chides Achilleus for staying out of the battle and includes a long digression about a war from Nestor's own glory days.

Battle rages around the Greek ships. He replies that she herself instructed him not to attack any god but Aphrodite; how can he fight with Ares? Indeed, this type of leadership was the standard advice of Greek tactical writers.

The battle rages on, until Diomedes sees Hektor rushing upon the Greeks with Ares at his side, and the Achaians retreat a bit. Concerned for his comrades but still too proud to help them himself, Achilles agrees to a plan proposed by Nestor that will allow his beloved friend Patroclus to take his place in battle, wearing his armor.

Andromache - Hector's wife. Agamemnon seizes the woman.

When was the iliad written

This frees Poseidon to lead the Greeks back into battle. Agamemnon and Achilles Argue Agamemnon is holding captive a woman named Chryseis. Instead there is vivid description of a variety of individual clashes, until finally Hektor decides to heed the advice of Poulydamas. Meanwhile on the battlefield Hektor again threatens to win Patroklos' body. King Agamemnon dishonours Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, by refusing with a threat the restitution of his daughter, Chryseis—despite the proffered ransom of "gifts beyond count". The Iliad has 15, lines. He recalls his own personal history, how he came to live in the palace of Peleus, and saw Achilleus grow up.

But Odysseus responds that he intends to fight hard, and Agamemnon almost apologizes. On the side of the Trojans are Apollo, Aphrodite, and Ares.

An overview of the illiad

It was the only place he was vulnerable. The other Achaians feast, but since Achilleus continues to refuse food and drink Zeus sends Athene to fill him up with nectar and ambrosia. Next Zeus directs Apollo to discourage the Achaians and to rejuvenate the wounded Hektor, which Apollo quickly does. The Trojan forces hold an assembly, and Hektor proposes making camp there on the plain, so that in the morning the Trojans may force their way up to the ships. Sarpedon makes his famous speech On the side of the Greeks are Poseidon, Hera, and Athena. In The Singer of Tales , Lord presents likenesses between the tragedies of the Greek Patroclus, in the Iliad, and of the Sumerian Enkidu , in the Epic of Gilgamesh , and claims to refute, with "careful analysis of the repetition of thematic patterns", that the Patroclus storyline upsets Homer's established compositional formulae of "wrath, bride-stealing, and rescue"; thus, stock-phrase reiteration does not restrict his originality in fitting story to rhyme. During the battle, the Achaeans capture a pair of beautiful maidens, Chryseis and Briseis. Either, if I stay here and fight beside the city of the Trojans, my return home is gone, but my glory shall be everlasting; but if I return home to the beloved land of my fathers, the excellence of my glory is gone, but there will be a long life left for me, and my end in death will not come to me quickly.

Achilleus answers that another prize will come later, when Troy is sacked. Diomedes rages on, and many Trojans fall before his spear.

Iliad text

Achilleus' killing spree continues. Zeus responds affirmatively with a bird-sign, and the Greeks regain their valor. The crowd delights in seeing Odysseus humiliate Thersites. Despite the misgivings of his wife, Andromache , the Trojan hero, Hector , son of King Priam , challenges the Greek warrior-hero Ajax to single combat, and is almost overcome in battle. Nestor chides the Argives, sounding the theme that they cannot compare to the sort of warriors whom Nestor knew in his youth. On the bright ridges of the helmets, horsehair plumes touched when warriors moved their heads. She tells him Achilleus' whole story, and requests that he forge new armor for her son. Again and again he tries to hit Hektor and misses, until finally Hektor charges him and wounds him gravely with a stone. Achilleus declares his anger to be at an end. Glaukos replies with a famous simile; why ask his lineage, when men are as impermanent as the leaves?

For example, a major hero may encounter a lesser hero from the opposing side, in which case the minor hero is introduced, threats may be exchanged, and then the minor hero is slain. But the issue is decided when Menelaos and Meriones are able to carry the body back to the ships, while the two Aiantes hold the Trojans at bay.

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Outline of Homer's Iliad