Outlook Therefore, the concept of a "Europeanisation of the world" signifies the dilemma.
Though they lead the life as permanent settlers, they still maintain allegiance to their mother country. They also had to recognize that the tendency to develop diverse institutions, narratives, and aesthetic practices was an essential human capacity.
The day to day work of government might be exercised indirectly through local assemblies or indigenous rulers who paid tribute, but sovereignty rested with the British. At the center of this debate is the question of whether institutional accommodation aimed towards reconciliation advances indigenous interests or further reproduces the conditions of domination that only perpetuate the historical settler-colonial relationship.
Germany and Italy got very little trade or raw materials from their empires. Individual national and expansion histories referred to each other in varying degrees at different times but often also reinforced each other.
By contrast, competition heated up in the 17th century, when the English, French and Dutch pressed forward, initially not in the territories of the Spaniards and the Portuguese, but in neighbouring regions.
It would therefore be incorrect to conclude that a developmental theory of history is distinctive of the liberal tradition; nevertheless, given that figures of the Scottish Enlightenment such as Ferguson and Smith were among its leading expositors, it is strongly associated with liberalism.
In a sense, this analysis is fully consistent with Marx, who saw European colonialism as continuous with the process of internal expansion within states and across Europe.